Bhagavad Gita: 8. The Eternal Being

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The Eternal Being

Arjuna said: O Krishna, who is the Eternal Being? What is the nature of the Eternal Being? What is Karma? Who are the mortal beings? And who are Divine Beings? Who is the Supreme Being, and how does He dwell in the body? How can You be remembered at the time of death by those who have control over their minds, O Krishna? (8.01-02)

Definition of supreme spirit, spirit, individual soul, and Karma
The Supreme Lord said: The immutable Atmā(Spirit) is called Brahma (Eternal Being). The nature(including the inherent power of cognition and desire)of Brahma is called Adhyātma. The creative power of Brahma that causes manifestation of the living entity is called Karma. (8.03) Mortal beings are changeable. Various expansions of the Supreme Being are called Divine Beings. I, the Supreme Being reside inside the physical bodies as the supreme enjoyer and divine controller (Ishvara), O Arjuna. (8.04)

Theory of reincarnation and Karma
The one who remembers Me exclusively, even while leaving the body at the time of death, attains Me; there is no doubt about it. (8.05) Remembering whatever object one leaves the body at the end of life, one attains that object, O Arjuna, because of the constant thought of that object (one remembers that object at the end of life and achieves it). (8.06)

A simple method of God-realization
Therefore, always remember Me and do your duty. You shall certainly attain Me if your mind and intellect are ever focused on Me. (8.07) By contemplating on Me with an unwavering mind that is disciplined by the practice of meditation, one attains the Supreme Being Arjuna. (8.08) One who meditates on the Supreme Being --- as the omniscient, the oldest, the controller, smaller than the smallest (and bigger than the biggest), the sustainer of everything, the inconceivable, the self-luminous like the sun, and as transcendental or beyond the material reality --- at the time of death with steadfast mind and devotion; making the flow of bio impulses(life forces, Prāna) rise up to the middle of two eye brows (or the sixth Chakra) by the power of yoga and holding there, attains Krishna, the Supreme Divine Person. (See also 4.29, 5.27, 6.13) (8.09-10) I shall briefly explain the process to attain the supreme abode that the knower’s of the Veda call immutable; into which the ascetics, freed from attachment, enter; and desiring which, people lead a life of celibacy. (8.11)

Attain salvation by meditating on God at the time of death
When one leaves the physical body by controlling all the senses, focusing the mind on God and Prāna (life-forces) in the cerebrum, engaged in yogic practice, meditating on Me and uttering OM--- the sacred monosyllable sound power of Eternal Being --- one attains the supreme abode. (8.12-13) I am easily attainable Arjuna, by that ever steadfast yogi who always thinks of Me and whose mind does not go elsewhere. (8.14) After attaining Me, the great souls do not incur rebirth in this miserable transitory world because they have attained the highest perfection. (8.15)The dwellers of all the worlds --- up to and including the world of Brahmā, the creator --- are subject to the miseries of repeated birth and death. But, after attaining Me, OArjuna, one does not take birth again. (See also 9.25)(8.16)

Everything in the creation is cyclic
Those who know that the day of the creator (Brahmā) lasts one thousand Yugas (or 4.32 billion years) and that his night also lasts one thousand Yugas, they are the knowers of day and night. (8.17) All manifestations come out of the primary material Nature (Adi-Prakriti) at the arrival of the day of Brahmā, the Creative Power, and they again merge into the same at the coming of Brahmā’s night. (8.18) The same multitude of beingscomes into existence again and again at the arrival of the day of the creator (Brahmā); and are annihilated, inevitably, at the arrival of Brahmā’s night. (8.19)There is another eternal transcendental existence ---higher than the changeable material Nature (Prakriti) ---that does not perish when all created beings perish. This is called the Eternal Being (or Brahma). This is also said to be the supreme abode. Those who attain My supreme abode do not take birth again. (8.20-21) This supreme abode, O Arjuna, is attainable by unswerving devotion to Me, within which all beings exist and by which all this universe is pervaded. (See also 9.04 and 11.55) (8.22)

Two basic paths of departure
O Arjuna, now I shall describe different paths departing by which, after death, the yogis do or do not come back.(8.23) Passing gradually, after death, through celestial controllers of fire, light, daytime, the bright lunar fortnight, and the six months of the northern solstice of the sun, yogis who know the Self attain supreme abode (anddo not come back to earth). (8.24) Passing gradually, after death, through celestial controllers of smoke, night, the dark lunar fortnight, and the six months of southern solstice of the sun, the righteous person attains heaven and comes back to earth again. (8.25)
The path of light(of spiritual practice and Self-knowledge) and the path of darkness (of materialism and ignorance) are thought to be the world’s two eternal paths. The former leads to salvation (Mukti, Nirvāna), and the latter leads to rebirth. (8.26)

Transcendental knowledge leads to salvation Knowing these two paths, O Arjuna, a yogi is not be wildered at all. Therefore, O Arjuna, be steadfast in yoga with Me at all times. (8.27) The yogi who knows all this goes beyond getting the benefits of the study of the Vedas, performance of sacrifices, austerities, and charities, and attains My Supreme Eternal Abode. (8.28)